الحضارة المصرية القديمة

الموضوع في 'أرشيف المنتدى التعليمي' بواسطة kabouya mohamed, بتاريخ ‏11 نوفمبر 2008.

  1. kabouya mohamed

    kabouya mohamed عضو

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    ‏29 جويلية 2008
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      11-11-2008 13:00
    Ancient Egypt :besmellah1:

    ncient Egypt has long been one of the most fascinating of the ancient civilisations of Earth. We have been filled with awe by the beauty of their sculptures and paintings, the stories of their leaders and the splendour of their achievements.
    They were one of the first human races to express themselves in writing, thus leaving us a record of their history. The powerful images of their building skills are apparent in the Pyramids of Giza and the statue of the Sphinx.
    This site will show you a little about the life of the ancient Egyptians and how it has been discovered.
    There are days when the sand blows ceaselessly, blanketing the remains of a powerful dynasty that ruled Egypt 5,000 years ago. When the wind dies down and the sands are still, a long shadow casts a wedge of darkness across the Sahara, creeping ever longer as the north African sun sinks beyond the horizon. This is where our history of Egypt begins, in the shadow of the Great Pyramid of Giza, where stone meets sky as a testament to one of the greatest civilizations on earth. Here, on the plateau of Giza, 2,300,000 blocks of stone, some weighing as much as 9 tons, were used to build an eternal tomb for a divine king.

    Five thousand years ago, the fourth dynasty of Egypt's Old Kingdom was a highly advanced civilization where the kings, known as pharaohs, were believed to be gods. They lived amidst palaces and temples built to honor them and their deified ancestors. "Pharaoh" originally meant "great house," but later came to mean king. What we know of this early society changes and is re-intepreted year by year as new archaeological finds discovered beneath the desert sands revise our understanding of ancient Egypt. This web site will show you science in action—bringing you face to face with the evidence archaeologists use to understand the meaning of Giza's pyramids, and to the process of evaluating the finds they will uncover beneath the sands of the plateau.

    Before looking closely at pharaonic society and the beginning of the Pyramid Age, one first has to step into Egypt's landscape and take a look around. Ancient Egyptians called their land "Kemet," which meant "black," after the black fertile silt-layered soil that was left behind each year during the annual innundation, when the Nile flooded the fields. The most prevalent color of the desert, however, is a decidedly reddish-yellow ochre. The Egyptians called the desert "deshret," meaning "red," and this endless carpet of sand covers an estimated 95 % of Egypt, interrupted only by the narrow band of green carved by the waters of the Nile. Here, the extreme dry sands of the desert meet the fertile silt-laden soils along the Nile—a river that provides a source of life for the entire nation and a good part of the African continent.
    History of Giza


    Standing at the base of the Great Pyramid, it is hard to imagine that this monument—which remained the tallest building in the world until early in this century—was built in just under 30 years. It presides over the plateau of Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo, and is the last survivor of the Seven Wonders of the World. Five thousand years ago Giza, situated on the Nile's west bank, became the royal necropolis, or burial place, for Memphis, the pharaoh's capital city. Giza's three pyramids and the Sphinx were constructed in the fourth dynasty of Egypt's Old Kingdom, arguably the first great civilization on earth. Today, Giza is a suburb of rapidly growing Cairo, the largest city in Africa and the fifth largest in the world.

    About 2,550 B.C., King Khufu, the second pharaoh of the fourth dynasty, commissioned the building of his tomb at Giza. Some Egyptologists believe it took 10 years just to build the ramp that leads from the Nile valley floor to the pyramid, and 20 years to construct the pyramid itself. On average, the over two million blocks of stone used to build Khufu's pyramid weigh 2.5 tons, and the heaviest blocks, used as the ceiling of Khufu's burial chamber, weigh in at an estimated nine tons.

    How did the ancient Egyptians move the massive stones used to build the pyramids from quarries both nearby and as far away as 500 miles? This question has long been debated, but many Egyptologists agree the stones were hauled up ramps using ropes of papyrus twine.
    The popular belief is that the gradually sloping ramps, built out of mud, stone, and wood were used as transportation causeways for moving the large stones to their positions up and around the four sides of the pyramids.
    How Old Are The Pyramids?


    The precise age of the pyramids of Giza has long been debated because, until now, there has been little evidence to prove when the pyramids were built. The history books generally point to 3200 B.C. as the approximate date when the pyramid of Khufu was under construction. But how exactly do Egyptologists date the pyramids? Like past excavations, the current dig at Giza attempts to bring us closer to pinpointing the time period during which the pyramids were built. NOVA Online's interviews with two experts reveal the results of recent carbon dating on the pyramids, and shed further light on the process Egyptologists must go through to decipher the age of these great monuments. NOVA Online invites those who have questions or comments about the age of the pyramids and the Sphinx to e-mail the excavation.






    Women in Ancient Egypt ​
    In ancient Egypt, if a man asked a woman to marry him, she could say no. Women were not equal with men, but they had considerably more rights than did women in other ancient civilizations.
    One of their rights was the right to decide if they wished to marry or not. A woman in ancient Egypt could not be forced into marriage. Those who did marry usually married quite young, around age 12-14. Once married, a woman's first duty was to be a good wife and mother. Children were very important to the ancient Egyptians.
    Along with raising the children and running the household, women were free to get a paid job outside the home, if they wanted one. They could run a business. They could own, buy, and sell property. They could make a will and leave their personal goods to whomever they chose, including their daughters. If they broke the law, they had go to court and defend themselves from the charge, just like everyone else.
    One of the biggest rights a woman had was the right of divorce. If a woman was unhappy with her marriage, she could get a divorce, and then remarry someone else or remain single. To be granted a divorce, a woman needed to present a good reason in a court of law. If her divorce was granted, she gained custody of the children, along with all of her original dowry if one was brought to the marriage - or its equivalent worth - plus one-third of her husband's wealth. This was done so that she could raise her children comfortably. She also took with her any property she personally owned, including property that had been willed to her during her marriage. Men could also get a divorce, but, if granted, women still gained custody of her children, her original dowry, and a big chunk of his wealth.

    Life in Ancient Egypt :: Plowing and Sowing

    Life in Ancient Egypt :: Reaping the Grain

    Life in Ancient Egypt :: Brick Making

    Life in Ancient Egypt :: Plowing

    Life in Ancient Egypt :: Egyptian Threshging Sledge

    Life in Ancient Egypt :: Egyptian Peasants




     

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